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化学进展 2016, Vol. 28 Issue (9): 1406-1416 DOI: 10.7536/PC160414 前一篇   后一篇

• 综述与评论 •

酰胺电子等排体在先导化合物优化中的应用

梅以成, 杨宝卫*   

  1. 江苏食品药品职业技术学院药学院 淮安 223005
  • 收稿日期:2016-04-01 修回日期:2016-06-01 出版日期:2016-09-15 发布日期:2016-08-16
  • 通讯作者: 杨宝卫 E-mail:yangbaowei19870621@163.com

Application of Amide Bioisosteres in the Optimization of Lead Compounds

Mei Yicheng, Yang Baowei*   

  1. School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu Food & Pharmaceutical Science College, Huaian 223005, China
  • Received:2016-04-01 Revised:2016-06-01 Online:2016-09-15 Published:2016-08-16
生物电子等排体是指一类化合物或基团,这类物质拥有近似的分子形状和体积,类似的电子分布,并由此表现出相似的物理特性。作为激动剂或拮抗剂生物电子等排体能对相同的生化相关体系发挥作用,产生彼此互相相关的生物特性。药物结构中酰胺结构作为药效团和药物的重要组成部分被广泛应用。然而作为药物分子结构的重要组成部分,酰胺结构也存在着一些明显的缺点,包括代谢不稳定、代谢产物有毒和膜渗透性差等。为了克服这些缺点同时又想保持部分酰胺的特性,生物电子等排体替换是有效的方法之一。在先导化合物的优化过程中,通过酰胺生物电子等排体替换还能达到提高生物活性和靶点选择性、降低合成难度、扩展或突破知识产权限制等目的。本综述着重介绍了近五年来酰胺及其生物电子等排体在先导化合物优化过程中的应用。希望能对含有酰胺结构的先导化合物的优化提供新的思路,加速新药研发进程。
Bioisosteres are a class of compounds or groups,these compounds with similar molecular shapes or volume, similar electronic distribution, and similar physical properties. Bioisosteres play a role in the same related biochemical system as agonist or antagonist, which possessed in related biological activities. The amide structure can be an important part of drugs and a constituent of a pharmacophore. However, the presence of this moiety can also be responsible for some significant drawbacks about drug molecular, including metabolic instability, toxicity, as well as limited passive diffusion across biological membranes. To avoid some of these shortcomings while retaining the desired attributes of the amide moiety, bioisosteric replacement of the amide moiety in lead compounds is an effective method. Through the amide bioisosteric replacements, other aims would be goal such as increasing the target potency and selectivity, developing new structures to expand or break through the patents and decreasing the difficulty of the synthesis of the compounds. This review focuses on the application of the replacement between amide and amide bioisosteres in the optimization of lead compounds in recent five years. We wish our review would offer a new thinking in the design and optimization of the compounds in the research and development of the new drugs.

Contents
1 Introduction
2 Amide bioisosteric replacement in lead compounds optimization
2.1 Increasing the target potency and selectivity
2.2 Improving the drug-likeness of the lead compounds
2.3 Developing new structures to expand or break through the patents
2.4 Decreasing the difficulty of the synthesis of the compounds
3 Conclusion

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