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化学进展 2021, Vol. 33 Issue (3): 368-379 DOI: 10.7536/PC200556 前一篇   后一篇

• 综述 •

微流控合成体系的装置分类及其用于纳米粒子的制备

杨冬1,2,*(), 高可奕1,2, 杨百勤1,2, 雷蕾1,2, 王丽霞1,2, 薛朝华3,*()   

  1. 1 陕西科技大学轻化工助剂化学与技术教育部重点实验室 西安 710021
    2 陕西科技大学化学与化工学院 西安 710021
    3 陕西科技大学轻工科学与工程学院 西安 710021
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-24 修回日期:2020-06-18 出版日期:2021-03-20 发布日期:2020-09-30
  • 通讯作者: 杨冬, 薛朝华
  • 作者简介:
    * Corresponding author e-mail: (Dong Yang); (Chaohua Xue)
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(21505089); 国家博士后第61批面上基金二等(202101710)

Classification of Microfluidic System and Applications in Nanoparticles Synthesis

Dong Yang1,2,*(), Keyi Gao1,2, Baiqin Yang1,2, Lei Lei1,2, Lixia Wang1,2, Chaohua Xue3,*()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Auxiliary Chemistry and Technology for Chemical Industry, Ministry of Education, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology,Xi’an 710021, China
    2 College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology,Xi’an 710021, China
    3 College of Bioresources Chemical and Materials Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology,Xi’an 710021, China
  • Received:2020-05-24 Revised:2020-06-18 Online:2021-03-20 Published:2020-09-30
  • Contact: Dong Yang, Chaohua Xue
  • Supported by:
    the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21505089); the 61th Batch of National Postdoctoral Funds Second-Class, China(202101710)

微流控技术由于其反应装置小型化的特点,可精准地控制物质间交换,适用于纳米材料的合成,尤其是无机纳米粒子的精确调控。微流控装置可根据具体实验需求来设计和调整,完成多个实验步骤的集成,实现多个化学反应以及复合材料的制备。本文根据不同标准,对微流控反应装置进行了分类,介绍其特点,并阐明了装置中流体的流动状态,枚举了微流控装置在材料合成领域的范例,阐明了微流控体系的优势,可能存在的不足及解决办法,最后对微流控合成体系的发展进行了展望。

Microfluidic synthesis technique is attracting considerable interest in the synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials, especially in precise regulation of nanoparticles, due to their miniaturization of reaction apparatus, precisely controlling the substances exchange. Given the demand for detailed experiments, the micro-reactors can be redesigned and adjusted, as well as multiple experimental steps integrated into one system to perform multi-step chemical reactions and realize the preparation of composite materials. In summary, various micro-reactors are briefly introduced, different flow statuses of the fluid in the micro-reactors are discussed, and the typical microfluidic synthesis applications in nanomaterial synthesis were exemplified in this review. Finally, the development trend in the microfluidic system is summarized.

Contents

1 Introduction

2 Microfluidic system

2.1 Microchannel reactor

2.2 Tubular microreactor

3 Fluid status in microfluidic

3.1 Monophasic laminar fluid

3.2 Polyphase droplet flow

4 Microfluidic synthesis of nanoparticles

4.1 Noble metal nanoparticles

4.2 Quantum dots

4.3 Silica nanoparticles

4.4 Magnetic nanoparticles

4.5 Hybrid nanoparticles

5 Conclusion and outlook

()
图1 用于纳米材料合成的微流控合成装置示意图:包括液体输送装置、微反应器、收集装置。(A)微通道内液体流动状态,(B)不同形貌的纳米粒子
Fig.1 Schematic showing components of the microfluidic system used for nanoparticle synthesis.(A) fluid flow in microchannels,(B) nanoparticles of different morphologies
图2 刻蚀聚合物材料(PMMA) 制备微通道反应器[24]
Fig.2 The microchannel reactor prepared by etching polymethyl methacrylate polymer materials[24]
图3 具有混合功能的管式微流控合成装置[47,48],(A)Y型混合微流控装置,(B)螺杆模式管状混合微流控装置
Fig.3 Tubular microfluidic reaction device with mixing function[47,48],(A) Y-type hybrid microfluidic device,(B) screw-type tubular hybrid microfluidic device
图4 微流控装置中液体的流动状态示意图:(A) 单相层流状态的流体,(B) 液滴状态的流体
Fig.4 Schematic of liquid flow in a microfluidic device:(A) monophasic laminar fluid,(B) polyphase droplet flow
图5 管式反应器内的流体处于层流状态,呈抛物线形速度分布
Fig.5 Fluid in the tube reactor fell within a laminar regime, exhibiting a parabolic velocity profile
图6 微流控装置生成液滴的示意图:(A) T型结构,(B) 十字型结构,(C) Y型结构,(D) 同轴流动结构
Fig.6 Schematic of generating droplets by microfluidic device:(A) T-type structure,(B) cross-type structure,(C) Y-type structure,(D) coaxial flow structure
表1 无量纲数计算公式及物理意义描述
Table 1 Calculation formula and physical meaning description of dimensionless quantity
图7 直接生成反应液滴的微流控装置并促进了液滴的混合[64]
Fig.7 Microfluidic device that directly generates reactive droplets and promotes droplet mixing[64]
图8 碰撞混合后生成反应液滴的微流控装置[77]
Fig.8 Microfluidic device for generating reaction liquid droplets after collision mixing[77]
图9 (A) 三相流体和试剂添加过程的图像,(B) 可用于多步反应的微流控合成装置示意图[78]
Fig.9 (A) Images of three-phase fluid stream and process of reagent addition,(B) schematic of a microfluidic device that can be used for multi-step reactions[78]
表2 采用不同微流控装置制备的量子点
Table 2 Quantum dots prepared using different microfluidic devices
图10 (A) 氧化铁核颗粒表面开始生产金核,(B) 生长成封闭的壳,(C) 生长到厚的金壳[77]
Fig.10 (A) Starting from initial growth of gold nuclei on the surface of the iron oxide core particles,(B) over a closed shell,(C) to a thick gold shell[77]
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