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化学进展 2019, Vol. 31 Issue (7): 969-979 DOI: 10.7536/PC181109 前一篇   后一篇

• •

聚电解质型正渗透汲取液

张赛晖1,3,4,**(), 王悦2,3, 柳开鹏1,3,4, 王捷2,3   

  1. 1.天津工业大学化学与化工学院 天津 300387
    2.天津工业大学环境科学与工程学院 天津 300387
    3.省部共建分离膜与膜过程国家重点实验室 天津 300387
    4.天津市绿色化工过程工程重点实验室 天津 300387
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-13 出版日期:2019-07-15 发布日期:2019-04-26
  • 通讯作者: 张赛晖
  • 作者简介:
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(21104034); 天津市教委科研计划项目(2017KJ078); 省部共建分离膜与膜过程国家重点实验室(天津工业大学)开放课题(Z2-2015062); 大学生创新创业计划(201510058031)

Polyelectrolyte-Based Draw Solution in Forward Osmosis

Saihui Zhan1,3,4,**(), Yue Wang2,3, Kaipeng Liu1,3,4, Jie Wang2,3   

  1. 1.School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387, China
    2.School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387, China
    3.State Key Laboratory of Separation Membranes and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387, China
    4.Tianjin Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Technology and Process Engineering, Tianjin 300387, China
  • Received:2018-11-13 Online:2019-07-15 Published:2019-04-26
  • Contact: Saihui Zhan
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(21104034); Scientific Research Project of Tianjin Education Commission(2017KJ078); State Key Laboratory of Separation Membranes and Membrane Processes(Tianjin Polytechnic University)(Z2-2015062); Student’s Platform for Innovation and Entrepreneurship Training Program(201510058031)

聚电解质作为正渗透汲取液具有渗透压高、溶质反向渗透、易于回收等特点,符合理想正渗透汲取液的要求。此外,多种分离方法诸如纳滤、超滤和热处理可用于其回收,使得聚电解质型汲取液成为诸如氯化钠等的传统无机汲取液的理想代替物。近年来关于聚电解质型汲取液的研究日益增加,而聚电解质型汲取液较无机型汲取液有许多独特的性质,应对相关研究进展予以总结。本文以聚电解质的化学结构分类对其研究进展进行了概述。重点总结了不同种类聚电解质的分子量、渗透压、黏度等性质,以及正渗透过程的水通量及溶质反向渗透情况,同时还介绍了相应的正渗透机理。最后,探讨和总结了各类汲取液的特点,并展望了未来的研究方向。

Polyelectrolyte-based draw solution(PBDS) exhibit high osmotic pressure, and low reverse solute leakage, which are highly demanded in forward osmosis process. Additionally, various separation methods such as nanofiltration, ultrafiltration and thermal treatment can be utilized for its recycle, rendering PBDS an ideal substitute for the traditional inorganic draw solution such as sodium chloride. In the past two decades, research works concerning PBDS have been intensively reported. Because PBDS has distinctive properties in comparison with inorganic draw solution, thus, it is necessary to review these developments in PBDS and present an outline. This paper aims to review the recent developments in PBDS in consideration of their chemical structures, which are categorized into carboxylate type, sulfonate type, amine type and amide type. In the beginning, the general considerations for an ideal PBDS are introduced. Subsequently, the molecular weight of the polyelectrolytes, the osmotic pressure and viscosity of the draw solutions, the water flux and reverse solute leakage in forward osmosis process are introduced in detail. The corresponding mechanisms of forward osmosis are also described. Finally, the characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of the PBDS are summarized, and the opportunities and challenges are discussed.

()
图1 正渗透原理图
Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of forward osmosis
图2 (a)PAA-Na的化学结构式[34];(b)PAspNa的化学结构式[44]
Fig. 2 Molecular structures of:(a) PAA-Na[34];(b) PAspNa[44]
图3 (a)PESA的化学结构式[48];(b)PIAM-Na的化学结构式[49]
Fig. 3 Molecular structures of:(a) PESA[48];(b) PIAM-Na[49]
图4 (a)PMAS和(b)P(IA-co-AA) 的化学结构式[50]
Fig. 4 Molecular structure of:(a) PMAS;(b) P(IA-co-AA)[50]
图5 (a)PSSP的化学结构式[54];(b)PBET的化学结构式[58]
Fig. 5 Molecular structures of:(a) PSSP[54];(b) PBET[58]
图6 (a)PSS-co-MA的化学结构式[59];(b)PSS-co-AA的化学结构式[60]
Fig. 6 Molecular structure of the:(a) PSS-co-MA[59];(b) PSS-co-AA[60]
图7 PEI的化学结构式[67]
Fig. 7 Molecular structure of PEI[67]
图8 (a)CASSs的化学结构式[68];(b)DTPMP-Na/TPHMP-Na的化学结构式[71];(c)PEI-600P/1800P-Na的化学结构式[71]
Fig. 8 Molecular structures of:(a) CASSs[68];(b) DTPMP-Na/TPHMP-Na[71];(c) PEI-600P/1800P -Na[71]
图9 (a)PNIPAM-SA(AA)的化学结构式[83, 85];(b)PSSS-PNIPAM的化学结构式[86]
Fig. 9 Molecular structures of:(a) PNIPAM-SA(AA)[83, 85];(b) PSSS-PNIPAM[86]
表1 聚电解质的性能
Table 1 Properties of polyelectrolyte-based draw solution
Category
of the
polyelectrolytes
Polyelectrolyte(Mw-Da) Concentration(g/mL) Osmotic pressure
or Osmolality
(bar or
mOsmol/kg)
Viscosity(cP) Waterflux(LMH) Reverse solute
flux(gMH)
Advantages Drawbacks ref
Carboxylate type PAA-Na(1800) 0.72 ~54 bar 127 ~19 ~1.2 Commercial available High viscosity 34
PAspNa(1313) 0.30 2150
mOsmol/kg
4.4 31.8 - Non-toxic; - 44
PESA(400~1500) 0.20 1250
mOsmol/kg
~2.2 15.4 3.19 Degradable - 48
PIAM-Na(5919) 0.375 ~2000
mOsmol/kg
~32 34 - Low leakage High viscosity 49
PMAS(559) ~0.28 143 bar ~10 30.6 ~0.9 High osmotic
pressure
High viscosity 50
P(IA-co-AA)
(533)
~0.267 ~57 bar ~30 27 0.68 Low leakage - 50
PAMAM-COONa(~2806) 0.333 3603
mOsmol/kg
9.16 29.7 7.5 Low leakage High reverse solute flux 51
Sulfonate type PSS(70 000) 0.24 - ~19 18.2 ~5.5 High water flux High reverse solute flux 52
PSSP(4700) 0.20 ~15 bar 12.62 14.50 0.14 Thermo-sensitive - 54
PBET(18 000) 0.20 898
mOsmol/kg
17.69 3.22 0.36 Thermo-sensitive Low water flux 58
PSS-co-MA-Na-1(20 000) 0.25 32.8±0.89 bar 5.89 15 0.04 Low leakage 59
PSS-co-AA
(96 308)
0.18 ~23 bar 5.4 11.77 0.1 Low leakage 60
Amine type PEI(800) 0.05 125.7
mOsmol/kg
0.62 ~1.2 0.01 Low leakage Low osmotic
presure at
high pH value
66
PEI(1200) 0.05 88.3 mOsmol/kg 0.75 ~0.75 0.05 66
PEI(25 000) 0.10 ~7 bar 1.93 24 0.7~1.0 67
TTHP-4Na
(666.21)
0.50 ~165 bar ~7 23.07 0.75 High osmotic
pressure
- 68
TPHMP-Na 0.05 ~105 bar ~17 54 0.83 High water flux High viscosity 71
ETAC-starch 0.3 11.91 bar 118.0 4.1 1.62 Low reverse
flux
Low water flux 72
Amide type PAM(3 000 000) 0.30 544
mOsmol/kg
244.7 ~5 1.5 Stable water flux High viscosity 73
4%PNIPAM-SA 0.40 ~2 bar - 0.347 - Thermo-sensitive Low water flux 83
PNSA-10(3530) 0.38 7.2 bar 59.8 2.95 - Thermo-sensitive High viscosity 85
PSSS-PNIPAM
(3500)
0.333 2137
mOsmol/kg
68 4.0 2 Thermo-sensitive High viscosity 86
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