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化学进展 2014, Vol. 26 Issue (12): 1942-1961 DOI: 10.7536/PC140732 前一篇   后一篇

• 综述与评论 •

非官能化烯烃的不对称催化环氧化反应

牛凡凡1, 聂昌军2, 陈勇1, 孙小玲*1   

  1. 1. 上海应用技术学院化学与环境工程学院 上海 201418;
    2. 上海恒安聚氨酯股份有限公司 上海 201512
  • 收稿日期:2014-07-01 修回日期:2014-09-01 出版日期:2014-12-15 发布日期:2014-12-19
  • 通讯作者: 孙小玲 E-mail:xiaolingsun1@msn.com
  • 基金资助:

    上海市自然科学基金项目(No. 14ZR1440900)和上海市联盟计划项目(No. LM201336)资助

Asymmetric Catalytic Epoxidation of Unfunctionalized Olefins

Niu Fanfan1, Nie Changjun2, Chen Yong1, Sun Xiaoling*1   

  1. 1. School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418, China;
    2. Shanghai Hea Polyurethane Co., Ltd, Shanghai 201512, China
  • Received:2014-07-01 Revised:2014-09-01 Online:2014-12-15 Published:2014-12-19
  • Supported by:

    The work was supported by the Shanghai Natural Science Foundation (No. 14ZR1440900) and Shanghai Alliance Program (No. LM201336)

手性环氧化合物是有机合成的重要中间体,由于三元杂环的张力使其很容易与各种亲核试剂作用,通过官能团转化反应,可以从环氧化物制备一系列不同结构的手性化合物.烯烃的不对称环氧化反应可以使潜手性的烯烃转化为带有手性碳的环氧化合物,在医药、农药、香料等精细化学品的合成上具有非常重要的意义.非官能化烯烃经手性催化剂诱导的不对称环氧化反应是获得光学纯手性化合物的有效方法.这些手性催化剂包括生物酶、金属卟啉、金属Salen配合物以及有机小分子催化剂.本文综述了这几种催化剂催化的非官能化烯烃不对称催化环氧化反应近几年的研究进展,介绍了催化剂的催化机理,并就其发展趋势提出了构想.

Due to the great importance of chiral compounds in the manufacture of drugs, vitamins, fragrances, and optical materials, the synthesis of chiral building blocks has attracted special attention. Chiral epoxides are among the most important intermediates that can react with a variety of reagents because of the polarity and ring-strain of the epoxide ring. Asymmetric epoxidation of olefins can convert prochiral olefins into epoxides with chiral carbon, which can be readily converted into various chiral compounds via regioselective ring-opening or functional group transformation reactions. Asymmetric synthesis reactions have been mainly induced by substrates or catalysts. The asymmetric synthesis induced by chiral catalysts is one of the most attractive and competitive areas in modern organic synthesis, because it can get a lot of new optical active substances using catalytic amount of chiral compounds. Asymmetric catalytic epoxidation of unfunctionalized olefins induced by the chiral catalyst has been the most effective way to obtain optical pure chiral epoxides. These chiral catalysts include enzymes, metal porphyrins, Salen-Mn (Ⅲ) complexs and organocatalysts. Among them, the synthesis of metal porphyrins and Salen-Mn (Ⅲ) complexs is inspired by enzymes. The organcatalyst, which does not contain metal ions, is regarded as a low pollution and lower toxicity catalyst. Asymmetric epoxidation of olefins catalyzed by these catalysts can get satisfactory yield and enantiomeric selectivity. Recent progress of enzymes, metal porphyrins, Salen-Mn (Ⅲ) complexs, and organcatalysts used for asymmetric epoxidation of olefins is reviewed. Moreover, the catalytic mechanisms and the development trend of this reaction are discussed.

Contents
1 Introduction
2 Enzyme-catalyzed asymmetric olefin epoxidation
2.1 Monooxygenases
2.2 Peroxidases
2.3 Artificial metalloenzymes
3 Metal porphyrin-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation of unfunctionalized olefins
4 Salen-Mn (Ⅲ) complex-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation of unfunctionalized olefins
4.1 Unsupported Salen-Mn(Ⅲ) complex-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation of unfunctionalized olefins
4.2 Supported Salen-Mn(Ⅲ) complex-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation of unfunctionalized olefins
4.3 Application of ionic liquid in Salen-Mn (Ⅲ) complex-catalyzed olefin asymmetric epoxidation
4.4 The mechanism of olefin asymmetric epoxidation catalyzed by Salen-Mn(Ⅲ) catalysts
5 Organic small molecule-catalyzed olefin asymmetric epoxidation
5.1 Chiral ketone-catalyzed olefin asymmetric epoxidation
5.2 Chiral iminium-catalyzed olefin asymmetric epoxidation

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